The "QWERTY" keyboard is the de facto keyboard layout that pretty much everybody using Latin script uses.
However, the QWERTY layout, created in the early 1870s, wasn't the first keyboard layout, and only came into being after the typists complained of their typewriters jamming; a common problem that interrupted a typists workflow in times gone by. The QWERTY layout was designed to help alleviate this by spacing the most commonly used combinations as far away from each other as possible.
Seeing as computers have succeeded typewriters and no longer have this problem, the QWERTY keyboard may seem like an inefficient and sub-optimal keyboard layout for the modern age.
Little-known is the Dvorak keyboard, which was first introduced in the 1930s as an optimal layout for efficient typing, reducing space between commonly-used characters. This, in turn, increases the typing speed by 200-300% thanks to the increasing accuracy. There's also a reduced risk of carpal-tunnel syndrome due to less stress being placed on the hands and wrists.
The logical arrangement of the Dvorak keyboard also makes it easier to learn, with one study reporting that it took only 52 hours for participants to learn the Dvorak keyboard, whereas the QWERTY keyboard took about 3 years to attain the same typing speed.
So why hasn't the Dvorak keyboard become more mainstream? Simply, this is because many people have already learned QWERTY and are reluctant to spend the many hours that it takes to learn a new layout. Having said that, Dvorak keyboards are available to buy, and there is indeed support for the Dvorak keyboard out there. Perhaps time will tell.